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16th International Conference on Structural & Molecular Biology, will be organized around the theme “Fostering Recent Inventions & Researches In Structural and Molecular Biology”

Molecular Biology-2022 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Molecular Biology-2022

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Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, RNA or DNA, made up of nucleotides, and membranes, made up of lipids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.


Both DNA and RNA are made from nucleotides, each containing a five-carbon sugar backbone, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. DNA provides the code for the cell's activities, while RNA converts that code into proteins to carry out cellular functions.

Proteomics is the analysis of the entire protein complement of a cell, tissue, or organism under a specific, defined set of conditions. In its present state, it is dependent on decades of technological and instrumental developments. The field of proteomics is particularly important because most diseases are manifested at the level of protein activity.

Genomics is the study of all of a person's genes (the genome), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment. Genomics, the study of genes, is making it possible to predict, diagnose, and treat diseases more precisely and personally than ever. A complete human genome contains three billion base pairs of DNA, uniquely arranged to give us our fundamental anatomy and individual characteristics such as height and hair color.

Computational Biology includes most of the aspects bioinformatics. It is the science of using biological data to develop algorithms or models to understand among various biological systems and relationships. There are approximately more than 3.3 million sequences without structure. This gap in the structural knowledge can be bridged by computation. Computational biology has become an important part of developing emerging technologies for the field of biology. Identification of suitable template of the related protein family plays a major role. Computational structural biology or structural bioinformatics is concerned with the analysis, simulation and prediction of the structure, dynamics and interactions of large biomolecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA. Such systems push the limits of our understanding and the limits of computing power.

In biology, cell signaling is the ability of a cell to receive, process, and transmit signals with its environment and with itself. Cell signaling is a fundamental property of all cellular life in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cells consist of proteins called receptors which bind to signaling molecule. They in turn initiate a physiological response and also it governs the cellular activities and coordination. It controls gene expression which is vital for cells to function properly. Also, cell signaling network helps to understand how it responds to the environment.

Drug designing is an inventive process of finding new medication based on the target knowledge. A drug is commonly a small compound which produces a therapeutic effect. There are different methods of drug designing. Designing a drug based on the three-dimensional structure and computational techniques are known as structure-based drug design and computer aided drug design respectively. There are various stages involved in computer aided drug design such as hit identification, hit to lead optimization and lead optimization. In structure-based drug design, the structure is obtained either through x-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy. Ligand-based drug design depends on the knowledge of molecules that bind to the biological target of our interest. Correlation between calculated and theoretical can be derived and this QSAR relationship is used to derive analogs. Biomarkers include tools and technologies that aid in dynamic and powerful approach to understand the spectrum of neurological diseases in knowing the prediction, cause, diagnosis, progression, regression, or outcome of treatment of a disease

Structural biology is the oldest of all biological disciplines and is still an expanding field. The main goal of structural biology is to achieve a complete understanding about the cellular structure in relation to the molecular mechanisms involved in the cellular processes. New insights are currently emerging into the macromolecular structures which involves in the signal transduction. It encompasses a full range of relationship from tissues to molecules. Structural biology has a very broad range and is highly diversified. There have been several major advances in molecular biology in the past few years. New technologies either improve existing techniques or develop new approaches to old questions to generate information more quickly, easily, accurately or in a more easily repeatable fashion than existing method.

The major part of research is being carried out in the area of cancer. Cancer is defined as the abnormal growth of cells. There are numerous types of cancer that affects people of all age. All gene banks have the responsibilities of acquiring the most important plant materials for their region without undue duplication; successfully treating and storing samples; maintaining and regenerating the collection without losing or changing genetic material (e.g. by mixing or mislabeling seed samples combines with molecular biology to design novel drugs mainly to cure cancer. The biologists carry out research in order to understand the biomolecules, identify different drug targets and improvise cancer therapies.

Blotting is used in molecular biology for the identification of proteins and nucleic acids and is widely used for diagnostic purposes. This technique immobilizes the molecule of interest on a support, which is a nitro cellulosic membrane or nylon. Following gel electrophoresis, probes are often used to detect specific molecules from the mixture. However, probes cannot be applied directly to the gel.

DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique used to establish a link between biological evidence and a suspect in a criminal investigation. A DNA sample taken from a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample from a suspect. If the two DNA profiles are a match, then the evidence came from that suspect.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method widely used to rapidly make millions to billions of copies (complete or partial) of a specific DNA sample, allowing scientists to take a very small sample of DNA and amplify it. PCR is fundamental to many of the procedures used in genetic testing and research, including analysis of ancient samples of DNA and identification of infectious agents. Using PCR, copies of very small amounts of DNA sequences are exponentially amplified in a series of cycles of temperature changes.

Structural bioinformatics is a highly cost-efficient solution for accelerated determination of the three-dimensional structures of proteins. Purely computational prediction methods, such as advanced fold recognition, composite approaches, ab initio fragment assembly, and molecular docking are routinely applied today. Hybrid method combines information from a varied set of experimental and computational sources. Hybrid approaches helps to overcome these limitations by incorporating limited experimental measurements, reliable structural models can be computed and unlikely predictions eliminated. Hybrid approaches take advantage of data derived from a range of very different biochemical and biophysical methods.

In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g., plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages). A vector containing foreign DNA is termed recombinant DNA. a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. Species of mosquito, for example, serve as vectors for the deadly disease Malaria.

 


Bioinformatics is defined as the application of tools of computation and analysis to the capture and interpretation of biological data. It is an interdisciplinary field, which harnesses computer science, mathematics, physics, and biology. it is used to identify correlations between gene sequences and diseases, to predict protein structures from amino acid sequences, to aid in the design of novel drugs, and to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their DNA sequences.

Gene banks are a type of biorepository that preserves genetic material. For plants, this is done by in vitro storage, freezing cuttings from the plant, or stocking the seeds. All gene banks have the responsibilities of acquiring the most important plant materials for their region without undue duplication; successfully treating and storing samples; maintaining and regenerating the collection without losing or changing genetic material (e.g. by mixing or mislabeling seed samples.